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Experimental Testing and Characterization of Bambusa Balcooa and bambusa Nutans for Analysis and Design of Bamboo Structures
(2023-12) Poudel, Sarowar
The purpose of this research/thesis is to investigate and define (for the first time) the mechanical properties of the two natively growing and primarily utilized bamboo species in Nepal, namely: Ban/Dhanu baans (Bambusa balcooa) and Maal baans (Bambusa nutans). Here bamboo related ISO standards and ASTM D 5764 – 97a (2002) were followed for conducting material tests and analysis. Shaft-bolt arrangement of connections were tested according to the preexisting details used previously in construction in Nepal. While Gusset plate arrangement of connection were designed using material properties of B. balcooa with intent of IIIs or IV mode of failure according to yield equations from TR 12 of American Wood Council, then tested. These two typologies of connection were tested from both species, each having two variants namely, confined (with hose-clamps) and unconfined (without hose-clamps). Measurement and Test data were analyzed to compute geometrical imperfection in bamboo culms, characteristic values of mechanical strengths and interpretation of connection tests.
Mediating Effect of Employee Positive Mood in the Relationship between Employee Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance in Nepal Electricity Authority
(2023-06) Bharat K.C
This study preliminary examines the mediating effect of employee positive mood in the relationship between employee job satisfaction and employee performance. This study also compare the job satisfaction among technical and non-technical officers in NEA. Philosophical foundation of this research is based on positivist research paradigm. Based on the philosophical foundation, this research has used quantitative research approach and descriptive cum explanatory research design. Using simple random sampling method, the responses were collected from 320 officer of NEA through close-ended structured questionnaire based on five point Likert’s scale. The collected data were organized, analyzed and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. Both descriptive and inferential statistic has used to meet the objectives of this study. In order to test the mediating effect, regression analysis has done based on Baron and Kenny model. For further confirmation of mediating effect, Hayes Process is also used. Summated mean based on five point Likert’s scale is used to find the job satisfaction, employee performance and positive mood of officer. This study revealed that employee job satisfaction and employee positive mood is correlated and correlation coefficient between them is 0.36. Correlation coefficient between job satisfaction and employee performance is 0.35. Also, employee positive mood and employee performance is correlated and correlation coefficient between employee positive mood and employee performance is 0.73. Similarly, employee job satisfaction has positive impact in mood of the employee and employee positive mood has positive impact in employee performance. It has also found that direct and indirect effect both were statistically significant. As a whole, this study has concluded that employee positive mood partially mediates the relationship between employee job satisfaction and employee performance. This study also shows that job satisfaction of technical officer in NEA is slightly higher than the non-technical officer and technical as well as non-technical officer both are less satisfied with pay and incentives provided by NEA as compared to working environment, job security and interpersonal relationship. Based on this fact, it can be concluded that officer of NEA are more satisfied with non-monetary factor rather than monetary factor provided by NEA. This study also conclude that performance and mood of officer in NEA is good as their respective mean is greater than point 4. Finding from this research is applicable for academician, practitioner as well as policy makers.
Characterization of the Cellulosic Fiber Obtained from Nepalese Lokta Bushes and Explore its Novel Applications
(Institute of Science and Technology, 2024-05) Aryal , Girja Mani
In Nepal, Handmade papers (HPs) are made from fibrous biomass of several plant species. Paper fabricated from fibrous biomass obtained from Lokta bushes following the traditional eco-friendly method is called Lokta paper or Nepal Kagaj. Handmade paper fabricated from Lokta bushes is being used to fabricate value-added products. The paper is traditionally believed to be durable and bug and mold-resistant. However, a systematic study on the material properties of this paper is not reported yet. Additionally, material properties of Lokta fiber retted under different conditions; which help to understand the performance of Lokta fiber-derived products is not mentioned in the literature. To increase, trade value it is also equally important to find next generation applications of the Lokta paper. This dissertation work was aimed at understanding the material properties of Lokta paper and fiber, and the fabrication of Lokta paper-derived nanocomposite mat for antimicrobial application. It was found that the mean caliper, apparent density, Cobb 60, grammage, brightness, opacity equilibrium moisture content, tensile strength, and tensile index values in the paper samples collected from local enterprises (n=10) ranged from ~90‒700µm, 0.2‒0.4 g/cm3, 50‒150 g/m2, 4‒7%, 50‒400 g/m2, 56‒67 %, 83‒98 %, 30‒2900 N/m, and 1‒27 Nm/g; in that order. These data recommended that Lokta paper is a light weight paper having intermediate to high strength, high caliper variation and relatively low brightness. All paper samples exhibited considerably increased tensile strength across the length axis (p<0.05). Distinctive characteristics of hemi‒cellulose, cellulose, and lignin were spotted in the FTIR spectra of all the samples. The amorphous and crystalline cellulosic segments were detected in X‒ray diffraction (XRD) data. Most importantly, electron microscopic showed a properly cross-linked web of entire fibers organizing a parallel layout of microfibrils. These morphological qualities could be responsible for delivering strength and durability to the paper samples. A comprehensive analysis of material properties of Lokta fiber subjected to 1-9% NaOH (w/v) concentrations at ambient temperature was also performed. The alkali resulted in significant shrinkage of lignin and hemicellulose; thereby increasing the cellulose content. On alkali treatment, fiber width and equilibrium moisture content decreased whilst fiber density, crystallinity index, tensile strength, and thermal stability increased. These changes can be assigned to the deduction of cementing materials from fiber bundles. These findings suggested that processing conditions greatly affect the fiber properties and to get Lokta paper of optical performance fiber chemistry needs to be properly tailored. Finally, Lokta paper-making process was mimicked in laboratory settings and the physico-chemical properties of lab-made Loka paper were compared with commercially available paper. The Ag/ZnO and Cu nanoparticles were doped in the Lokta paper following hydrothermal and chemical reduction methods. The Lokta paper nanocomposite mat showed promising antimicrobial activity contrary to two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) and a fungal strain (Candida Albicans). These observations suggested that the Lokta paper-derived nanocomposite mat can find potential applications as an antimicrobial packaging material.